Europe Just Cost Women a Bunch of Money on Their Car Insurance By Switching to Gender Equality

In honor of International Women’s Day – we at the National Law Review want to point out that every rainbow also has it’s rain as pointed out today by the Risk Management Monitor

Males have by and large run this planet since Neanderthals were drawing on walls in caves. So when we talk about improving gender equality, we are generally talking about things that are immediately beneficial to women. A recent ruling by the European Court of Justice, however, is likely going to cost female drivers some money.

The court has found that tying insurance rates to gender goes against Europe’s Fundamental Charter of Rights. So come December 2012, insurers will no longer be able to do it. The actuarial science regarding male and female drivers, particularly those under 25 years old, couldn’t be clearer. Young men get into more and more expensive accidents than your women. Still, while the numbers don’t lie, I have always wondered why that fact makes it OK to discriminate.

Apparently the court agreed.

Claire Wilkinson of III’s Terms + Conditions blog explains the likely fallout.

In the past, insurers relied on a 2004 directive that recognized the strength of the evidence for gender-based rates. The average claim for an 18-year-old male in the U.K. totals £4,400 ($7,160), vs. £2,700 ($4,390) for an 18-year-old female.

The net effect: Women will be subsidizing men for auto insurance. One British insurer estimated that women under 25 years could pay 25% more per year – perhaps £400 ($650).

The ruling affects other types of insurance, too. Women live longer, so they traditionally paid lower rates for life insurance. (The insurer could earn more investment income off the premium while waiting for the woman’s demise.) So women will see life insurance rates rise, perhaps by 20%.

This issue is obviously a thorny one.

On the one hand, equality is good. On the other, the insurance industry just lost a major, effective way to underwrite risks and properly price rates. Claire brings up the notion of credit ratings being used as a rate-setting metric as well, another thing that always struck me as irrelevant to car-driving ability. Again, the numbers there show some pretty definitive trends but, logically, the connection seems like one inappropriate to the policies that drivers are purchasing.

But what do I know?

I take the subway to work and have never even owned a car.

UPDATE: Canadian Underwriter ran a good piece on this development that includes the following insights about the marketplace uncertainty the decision has created.

The court’s decision will create some uncertainty in the market during the transitional period, says Noleen John, a legal consultant for international legal practice Norton Rose LLP.

“Insurers will from December 2012 need to apply unisex rates,” said John. “This transitional period is less than that recommended by the Advocate General and means that insurers will need to review their policies and practices as soon as possible.

“It also seems likely, in view of the length of the transitional period, that insurers may need to use uncertainty premiums until they have sufficient data in relation to the carrying on of business on this new basis. This could result in higher premiums or lower benefits for certain policyholders (female motorists and male annuitants).”

The decision also may create some uncertainty about the future of other established actuarial factors used to establish insurance premiums.

“There is going to be uncertainty in the insurance market for some time as a result of this decision,” says Ashley Prebble, insurance partner atNorton Rose LLP. “It is likely that the decision will require the European Commission to clarify the position with regards to other potential areas of discrimination, particularly age and disability.”

We shall see.

Risk Management Magazine and Risk Management Monitor. Copyright 2011 Risk and Insurance Management Society, Inc. All rights reserved.

Not Your Father's Insurance Coverage: Using Transactional Insurance to Drive Business Opportunities

Posted at the National Law Review last week by Daniel J. Struck and Neil B. Posner of Much Shelist – a review of different type of insurance products that can be helpful in facilitating certain types of financial transactions: 

Insurance coverage as a commercial risk management tool has been around for centuries, but there are a number of newer transactional insurance products that can actually help drive business opportunities and close deals. Developed in the last decade or so and becoming more widely available, these products—including representations and warranties (R&W), tax liability, litigation liability and environmental stop-loss insurance—are decidedly not your father’s insurance coverage. Rather, these less traditional types of coverage can help facilitate the purchase or sale of a business or a significant business asset by reducing the uncertainties associated with potential indemnification obligations and liability exposures.

Traditional Insurance Coverage: Still an Important Corporate Asset

For many businesses, standard commercial insurance is treated as a routine expense in which premiums are the deciding factor in evaluating largely interchangeable form policies. In previous articles, we have discussed why this approach is often short-sighted.

The types of insurance coverage purchased by most businesses are predictable. General liability insurance protecting against liabilities owed to third parties resulting from bodily injury, personal injury and property damage is a given. Some kind of first-party property coverage for loss to owned or rented premises, damage to inventory and equipment, and resulting business interruptions also is generally necessary. Because most businesses have employees, insurance related to workers’ compensation and employee benefits programs is essential. Depending on the particular business, additional lines of insurance—such as management liability, employee dishonesty/fidelity, fiduciary liability, cyber-liability and professional liability—may be necessary as well.

For all their differences, these types of coverage all serve as a means to manage risk and reduce the exposure to potential “fortuitous” first-party losses or third-party liabilities, ranging from slip-and-fall accidents at a retail location to a devastating explosion at a factory or an alleged breach of duty by a company’s directors. Although traditional insurance coverage may help protect the financial health and solvency of a business and its individual partners, officers or directors, it does not often operate as an actual driver of business opportunities.

Transactional Insurance: A Tool for Facilitating Corporate Transactions

Transactional insurance policies, on the other hand, generally insure against risks that fall outside the scope of more traditional coverage and have the potential to drive, or at least facilitate, certain corporate transactions. Examples include:

  • R&W insurance, which provides coverage for the contractual indemnification obligations resulting from breaches of the representations and warranties of a specific agreement (often a contract for the purchase/sale of a business or a significant corporate asset);
  • Tax liability insurance, which provides coverage for an identified potential tax liability or penalty, or for the liability resulting from an adverse determination in a specified ongoing tax dispute;
  • Litigation liability insurance, which may provide coverage if an award of damages in an identified piece of litigation exceeds a threshold specified in the insurance policy; and 
  • Environmental stop-loss insurance, which may provide coverage for the costs of an ongoing environmental remediation project that exceeds a specific cost threshold.

Although commercial insurance policies of every type should be tailored to the particular needs of the insured, the levels of detail and specific underwriting and negotiation involved in placing transactional insurance are generally even greater. For example, the process tends to be fact specific and often involves extensive manuscripting (i.e., the negotiation of customized coverage terms applicable to the specific risks insured against).

But how can transactional insurance facilitate the completion of corporate transactions? Even in the best of times, potential buyers and sellers may find it difficult to agree on price. In the current economic environment, however, distressed sellers may be reluctant to discount the value of their businesses in hopes of a return to better days, while value-conscious purchasers are determined to buy at a substantial discount. Assuming that agreement can be reached on price, the parties must still negotiate the representations and warranties provided by both the buyer and the seller, and then reach acceptable indemnity terms for breaches of those representations. But the challenges don’t end there. A buyer with concerns about the ability of the seller to satisfy its indemnification obligations naturally will want the indemnification provision to be backstopped by a substantial escrow. A seller, however, likely will not want a substantial portion of his or her personal wealth tied up in an escrow account to pay for liabilities related to a business with which he or she is no longer associated.

In this challenging context, R&W insurance might help bridge differences and facilitate the successful closing of the transaction. For example, a potential buyer can use R&W insurance as a means to avoid relying solely on the seller for indemnification. A potential buyer might be able to make an offer more appealing by incorporating R&W insurance into its bid to reduce the portion of the purchase price that will be held in escrow. Similarly, for a seller that is eager to divest a business and minimize the scope of its continuing obligations relating to that business, a carefully tailored R&W insurance policy may provide a greater level of comfort that the seller will not be forced to pay out of pocket to satisfy potential indemnification obligations.

The following scenarios illustrate some of the ways in which transactional insurance might be used effectively to facilitate a transaction or to make a particular proposal more financially appealing.

Scenario One: Show Me the Money

After spending 25 years building a successful manufacturing business, Jacob Marley has decided to retire and tour the world on a yacht purchased with the proceeds from the sale of his company. He retains an investment banker to put the business up for auction and receives interest from a number of private equity firms, including HavishamCo. Rather than grossly over-bidding its competitors, Havisham distinguishes its offer by including an escrow requirement that is dramatically lower than would normally be expected (subject only to Havisham’s ability to secure R&W coverage). While putting its bid together, Havisham negotiated terms of an R&W insurance policy to insure over the seller’s representations and warranties. The bid prices from the various private equity firms were roughly equivalent, but Havisham’s escrow holdback was several million dollars lower than in any of the competing bids. Thanks to this creative use of R&W insurance, Marley accepts Havisham’s bid and sails off into the sunset.

Scenario Two: Good Intentions and a Token Will Get You on the Subway

CogswellCorp is experiencing financial difficulty because its “visionary” CEO has begun expanding the company beyond its core cog-manufacturing business. In order to finance its ambitious growth strategy, Cogswell decides to sell its cog-manufacturing operations. SpacelyCo seizes the opportunity to purchase the operations of a longtime competitor, and the parties easily agree on price. In an effort to close the deal quickly, Spacely proposes a modest escrow of only $1 million. However, the cap on Cogswell’s indemnification obligations for breaches of its representations and warranties is significantly higher at $30 million. Although Spacely believes it is purchasing the fundamentally sound operations of one of its largest competitors at a bargain price, Spacely’s management team fears that Cogswell’s expansion efforts will fail, leaving the company unable to honor its indemnification obligations if called upon to do so. In order to address this concern, Spacely obtains an R&W policy that provides coverage above a retention amount equal to the escrow of $1 million, and the deal closes successfully.

Scenario Three: The Long Goodbye

Forty years ago, ApexCo was the world’s largest electronics manufacturer. The company also maintained one of the foremost R&D departments in the world and now holds patents for inventions that are widely used in data storage devices, computer chips and consumer electronics. Over time, Apex discovered that the licensing of its patents was far more lucrative than its manufacturing operations. After being acquired by a private equity firm, Apex shut down its manufacturing and marketing operations in order to focus on licensing its patents and vigorously protecting its intellectual property. Today, the company continues to own a number of shuttered manufacturing facilities and distribution centers in populous suburban locations. There is extensive environmental contamination at several of these sites, which makes them difficult to sell without providing broad, open-ended indemnifications to the buyers. In an effort to control the financial obligations associated with these facilities, Apex seeks the placement of stop-loss insurance that will apply to each of the properties. The underwriting process requires significant due diligence, testing and the preparation of estimates for the remediation cost at each property. Ultimately, Apex is able to secure a stop-loss policy that generally covers remediation costs above a threshold specified for each site. As a result, Apex is now able to market the properties knowing that its financial obligations will be fixed but that buyers will enjoy a level of assurance that additional remediation costs will be paid for under the stop-loss policy.

Scenario Four: Death and Taxes

Holding company Jarndyce & Sons consolidated a number of its subsidiaries into a new subsidiary, BleakCo. Based on the tax opinion of its law firm, Kenge & Carboy, Jarndyce believed that the roll-up had been accomplished through a series of tax-free transactions. Eventually, Jarndyce decided to sell Bleak and entered into negotiations with private equity firm PickwickPip. During due diligence, however, PickwickPip’s law firm, Dodson & Fogg, raised concerns about whether the roll-up transactions had indeed been tax free. Despite these concerns, PickwickPip felt strongly that Bleak would be a valuable addition to its portfolio. Because it disagreed with the tax position taken by PickwickPip’s counsel, Jarndyce was unwilling to place the full amount of the potential tax liability in escrow or to provide a full indemnity. Jarndyce, however, was willing to pay a portion of the premium for a tax insurance policy that would cover PickwickPip for any tax liability above an escrow amount agreed to by the parties in the purchase agreement.

A Strategic Solution

As these scenarios illustrate, transactional insurance can be used strategically by both buyers and sellers to overcome obstacles that might otherwise make it difficult to complete an acquisition or divesture. It is not, however, an off-the-shelf product. The underwriting often requires its own due diligence, and the terms under which coverage is provided frequently require intense negotiations. Accordingly, whether transactional insurance products might be useful in bridging obstacles to a transaction should be an early strategic consideration. Given the myriad issues and financial interests at stake, it is important that a potential purchaser of transactional insurance pay close attention to the risks for which coverage is sought, the extent to which the proposed coverage terms respond to those risks and the legal effects of the negotiated coverage terms.

© 2011 Much Shelist Denenberg Ament & Rubenstein, P.C.

Wisconsin Tort Reform 2011: Governor signed the Omnibus Tort Reform Act

As posted on the National Law Review by Joseph Louis Olson and Adam E. Witkov of Michael Best & Friedrich LLP – implications of the Wisconsin Omnibus Tort Reform Act signed into law today by Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker:  

Governor Scott Walker signed the OmnibusTort Reform Act (the “Act”) today, January 27, 2011.  The Act addresses several areas of interest for Wisconsin companies.

Specifically, the Act:

Limits Punitive Damages.

  • Punitive damages are capped at to $200,000 or double the amount of compensatory damages, whichever is higher. The cap does not apply to lawsuits related to operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated.

Raises the Standards for Expert Testimony.

  • This Act adopts the standard set forth in Federal Rule of Evidence 702, also known as the “Daubert standard.” The Daubert standard allows the admission of expert testimony only if it is based on sufficient factors or data and is the product of reliable principles and methods.

Limits the Application of the Risk Contribution Theory.

  • This provision is a response to the Wisconsin Supreme Court’s 2005 decision in Thomas v. Mallett, 2005 WI 129, 285 Wis. 2d 236, 701 N.W.2d 523, where the Court permitted a case to proceed against seven paint manufacturers despite the fact that the plaintiff could not prove who made the lead-based paints that he claimed poisoned him as a child. The Act limits the holding in Thomas. If the claimant can not identify the specific product that allegedly caused the injury, a manufacturer, distributor, seller, or promoter of a product may be held liable only if all of the following apply: (1) the claimant proves: (a) no other lawful process exists for the claimant to seek any redress from any other person for the injury or harm; (b) that the claimant has suffered an injury or harm that can be caused only by a manufactured product chemically and physically identical to the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm; and (c) that the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or promoter of a product manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted a complete integrated product, in the form used by the claimant or to which the claimant was exposed, and that meets all of the following criteria: (i) is chemically and physically identical to the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm; (ii) was manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted in the geographic market where the injury or harm is alleged to have occurred during the time period in which the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm was manufactured, distributed, sold, or promoted; and (iii) was distributed or sold without labeling or any distinctive characteristic that identified the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or promoter; and (2) the action names, as defendants, those manufacturers of a product who collectively manufactured at least 80 percent of all products sold in this state during the relevant production period by all manufacturers of the product in existence during the relevant production period that are chemically identical to the specific product that allegedly caused the claimant’s injury or harm.

Limits Strict Product Liability Claims.

  • Under the Act, Wisconsin is now in line with the majority of other states that have adopted the “reasonable alternative design” test instead of the broader “consumer expectation” test. Accordingly, a manufacturer will be liable for damages caused by the manufacturer’s product based on a claim of strict liability only if the injured claimant proves that the product was defective, the defective condition made the product unreasonably dangerous, the defective condition existed at the time the product left the control of the manufacturer, the product reached the user or consumer without substantial change, and the defective condition caused the claimant’s injuries. If the injured party’s percentage of total causal responsibility for the injury is greater than the percentage resulting from the defective condition of the product, the injured party may not, based on the defect in the product, recover damages from the manufacturer, distributor, seller, or any other person responsible for placing the product in the stream of commerce. If the injured party’s percentage of total causal responsibility for the injury is equal to or less than the percentage resulting from the defective condition of the product, the injured party may recover but the damages recovered by the injured party shall be diminished by the percentage attributed to that injured party.

Toughens State Rules Relating to Damages for Frivolous Claims.

  • In civil cases, a party or his or her attorney may be liable for costs and fees for actions that are done (1) in bad faith, solely for the purpose of harassing or maliciously injuring another; or (2) was without a reasonable basis in the law. If the offending party withdraws or corrects the improper conduct within 21 days of receiving the other party’s motion for fees, the court can decide whether to award actual costs taking into consideration the offending party’s mitigating conduct. If the offending party does not timely withdraw or correct the conduct, actual costs shall be awarded. If the decision is appealed and the appellate court affirms the award of fees, the offending party must also pay the attorney fees incurred in the appeal.  

In addition to the tort reform provisions outlined above, the Act includes several health care related provisions previously discussed in a client alert dated January 10, 2011, also available here.


Rise in Foreclosures + An Increase in Mortgage Fraud = More Homeowner Fires

A recent posting at the National Law Review by Rick Hammond of Johnson & Bell Ltd. highlights some of many problems related to mortgage fraud.  

According to recent reports, many insurers have experienced an increase in the number of fire claims since the onset of the subprime mortgage crisis.  Allegedly, many of these fires were intentionally set by homeowners facing foreclosure.  Not surprisingly, when homeowners’ monthly mortgage payments increase after their low introductory rates expire or when falling home values and stricter lending practices reduce the possibility of restructuring or refinancing loans, the natural result is an increase in the number of foreclosures and an increase in homeowner fires.

That’s not the only problem facing the insurance industry.  Insurers are also experiencing an increase in fires associated with the rise in mortgage fraud, which is also running rampant across the United States.  Mortgage fraud is generally defined as the intentional misstatement, misrepresentation, or omission by an applicant or other interested party relied on by a lender or underwriter to provide funding for a mortgage loan.

Victims of mortgage fraud include borrowers, mortgage industry entities, and those living in the neighborhoods affected by mortgage fraud. As properties affected by mortgage fraud are sold at artificially inflated prices, properties in surrounding neighborhoods also become artificially inflated. When property values are inflated, property taxes increase as well. Legitimate homeowners also find it difficult to sell their homes. When properties foreclose as a result of mortgage fraud, neighborhoods deteriorate and surrounding properties depreciate.

Legal Issues and Developing Law

  • Insurable Interest by the Insured

The threshold question in many cases involving mortgage fraud and its effect on insurance coverage is whether the insured has an insurable interest in the property at the time of a loss.  An insurable interest at the time of loss is essential to the validity of an insurance policy.  Hawkeye Security Ins. Co. v. Reeg, 128 Ill. App. 3d 352, 470 N.E.2d 1103 (Ill. App. Ct. 1984).  Generally speaking, a person has an insurable interest in property whenever he or she would profit or gain some advantage by a property’s continued existence, and suffer loss or disadvantage by its destruction. Lieberman v. Hartford Fire Ins. Co., 6 Ill.App.3d 948, 287 N.E.2d 38 (Ill. App. Ct. 1972).

To determine whether an individual has an insurable interest in property, a court will usually examine whether an economic benefit or detriment inures to the named insured under any set of circumstances.  In cases involving a straw person, a close examination of the facts might reveal that in every conceivable manner an insured did not contribute a single cent towards the purchase of the insured property or its maintenance.  That is, an investigation might reveal that every payment towards the purchase or maintenance of the insured premises was made by a straw person, that is, the property’s unidentified buyer-in-fact.

Therefore, a proper investigation would seek to determine whether a buyer-in-fact paid for the insurance, paid the initial down payment, the mortgage payments, and for all upkeep and necessary expenses, and whether he or she paid for every attendant cost for the property.  In these cases, the actual insured will likely not incur economic loss due to the damage suffered by the insured premises, nor gain economically from any recoverable insurance proceeds.  Simply put, the primary question is whether there was an actual relationship between the insured and the insured premises, or whether the insured’s relationship to the insured premises is illusory.

  • Mortgagee’s Duty to Notify Insurer of Foreclosure Proceedings

An insurer is often unaware of a pending foreclosure on property that it insures until after a fire has occurred.  Must a mortgagee, as a condition to receiving coverage, give notice to the insurer when that mortgagee initiates foreclosure?  A recent case in Tennessee is instructive in analyzing this question (See: U.S. Bank, N.A. v. Tennessee Farmers Mut. Ins. Co., 2007 WL 4463959).

In this case, a homeowner and insured fell behind on her monthly mortgage payments and the mortgagee, U. S. Bank, N.A., initiated foreclosure.  The bank sent a letter to the homeowner stating that it started foreclosure, but the bank neglected to give notice of the foreclosure to the property insurer, Tennessee Farmers Mutual Insurance Company.  Before the foreclosure process was completed, the homeowner and her husband filed for bankruptcy, which stayed the foreclosure proceedings.  Shortly thereafter, the house was destroyed by fire.

U.S. Bank filed a claim with the insurers, Tennessee Farmers, for the fire loss, but the insurer denied the claim because the bank had failed to notify Tennessee Farmers that a foreclosure had been initiated.  Tennessee Farmers stated that the foreclosure filing constituted an increase in hazard and, as such, the bank was required to notify the insurance company, and the bank’s failure to provide this notice was a breach of the policy’s mortgage clause, which stated:

We will:

(a)        protect the mortgagee’s interest in the insured building.  This protection will not be invalidated by any act or neglect of any insured person, breach of warranty, increase in hazard, change of ownership, or foreclosure if the mortgagee has no knowledge of these conditions

The trial court denied Tennessee Farmers’ motion for summary judgment and granted summary judgment to the bank.  The insurance company then filed an appeal.  On appeal, Tennessee Farmers argued that the foreclosure proceedings was an “increase in hazard” under the terms of the policy of insurance, and contended that the bank’s bad faith claim was unfounded.  On the other hand, U.S. Bank argued that commencing foreclosure proceedings did not constitute an increase in hazard, and asked the court to adopt the Kentucky’s court’s opinion in Anderson v. Kentucky Growers Ins. Co., Inc., 105 S.W.3d 462 (Ky. Ct. App. 2003).

In Anderson, the policy’s mortgage clause stated that the insurance company’s denial of the insured’s claim would not apply to a mortgagee’s claim if the mortgagee had notified the insurer of a “substantial change in risk of which the mortgagee becomes aware.”  In that case, the house was destroyed by fire, and the insurance company argued that the filing of foreclosure proceedings constituted a “substantial change in risk of which the mortgagee became aware.”

The court in Anderson ruled against the insurer, noting that insurance contracts are liberally construed in favor of the insured: “While we agree that the filing of foreclosure proceedings constitutes a ‘change of risk,’ we do not agree that such a change is necessarily ‘substantial.”  The court then concluded that the policy did not “clearly and unambiguously” require the mortgagee to give the insurer notice when foreclosure was initiated.  The court in Anderson further held that commencing foreclosure proceedings, while certainly a “change of risk,” did not constitute a “substantial change of risk” within the meaning of the mortgage clause.

The Tennessee Farmers’ court rejected the Anderson court’s analysis, noting that the mortgage clause in the Tennessee Farmer’s policy required notification of “any” increases in hazard, not just a “substantial” increase in hazard.  However, this issue remains a moving target.  Thus, after the Tennessee Court of Appeals agreed with the insurance company and reversed the trial court’s decision, U.S. Bank then appealed to the Tennessee Supreme Court.  The state’s high court held that the bank’s commencement of foreclosure proceedings was not an increase of hazard requiring notification to insurance company under the standard mortgage clause in a fire insurance policy, and the bank’s commencement of foreclosure proceedings was not an increase of hazard requiring statutory notification to insurance company.

  • Mortgage Fraud and the Insurer’s Right of Rescission

By its very nature, mortgage fraud involves the intentional misstatement and misrepresentation of material information to a mortgagee.  Often, the same misrepresentations made to the mortgagee are also made to an insurer on an insurance application and give rise to a rescission action.  For an insurer to rescind a policy due to misrepresentation, the insured’s statement must be false, and the false statement must have been made with the intent to deceive ormaterially affect the acceptance of the risk or hazard by the insurer.  Illinois State Bar Assn. Mut. Ins. Co. v. Coregis Ins. Co., 335 Ill. App. 156, 821 N.E.2d 706 (Ill. App. Ct. 2004).  In such circumstances, an insurance policy becomes voidable, not void ab initio, and an insurer can waive its right to void if it does not invoke it promptly.

However, in some states an insurer has no general duty to investigate the truthfulness of answers to questions asked on an insurance application.  Those states have recognized that “an insurance company has the right to rely on the truthfulness of the answers given by an insurance applicant, and the insured has the corresponding duty to supply complete and accurate information to the insurer.”  Commercial Life Insurance v. Lone Star Life Insurance, 727 F. Supp. 467, 471 (N.D. Ill. 1989).

However, an insurer is generally estopped from voiding a policy for untrue representations in the application if the insured discloses facts to the agent and the agent, in filling out the application, does not state the facts as disclosed to him, but instead inserts conclusions of his own or answers inconsistent with the facts. See Boyles v. Freeman, 21 Ill. App. 3d 535, 539, 315 N.E.2d 899 (Ill. App. Ct. 1974). Typically, an insurer cannot rely on incorrectly recorded answers, even when the insured knows that the agent has entered answers different from the ones he or she provided, if the incorrect answers are entered under the agent’s advice, suggestion, or interpretation.  Loganv. Allstate Life Insurance Co., 19 Ill. App. 3d 656, 660, 312 N.E.2d 416 (Ill. App. Ct. 1974).

Thus, the agent’s knowledge of the truthfulness of the statements is imputed to the insurer.  Generally, only when an applicant has acted in bad faith, either on his or her own or in collusion with the insurer’s agent, will a court refuse to impute the agent’s knowledge to the insurance company.

Most laws that are enacted to regulate rescission actions are designed to prevent insurance companies from rescinding policies based on cursory or unintended misstatements by an insured.  However, in cases involving straw persons, an argument can be made that the buyers-in-fact act as puppet masters and typically arrange to have the insureds’ names placed on the mortgage and the insurance policies to shield him or herself from exposure, while still enjoying potential profits from sales or insurance proceeds.  In these cases, a court will likely recognize this deceptive arrangement, and that the buyer-in-fact elicited an insurance policy using the purported insured as a front.  Arguably, a court should order rescission of the insurance policy in these types of cases.

  • Rescission of the Mortgagee’s Right of Recovery

Most policies’ mortgage clause does not address rescission of the contract, nor does it describe the mortgagee’s rights in the context of rescission, because these rights are, in fact, extinguished by rescission.  Therefore, a novel approach in cases involving fraud in the application for insurance is to file a declaratory judgment action seeking rescission and voiding of the policy, which will possibly render the mortgage clause inapplicable, and asking a court to bar the mortgagee from receiving any benefits of that clause.  Thus, rescission could potentially wipe the entire policy away, and the insurer would owe no contractual duties to either the insured or the mortgagee.  Assuming rescission is granted, in effect, the policy will have never legally existed, and all parties that had any putative rights under that policy would have none.

Importantly, some courts have held that an insurer’s right to rescind or deny coverage on the basis of fraud only applies to the claims of the insured, not to claims of innocent third-parties that are injured by the insured’s tortuous acts.  However, this argument is inapplicable here, since a mortgagee is not a third party but is tantamount to a first-party insured.  Moreover, contract law governs the alleged wrongful acts of the insured rather than tort law.

  • Increasing the Effectiveness of an Insurance Claims Investigation

To conduct a more effective investigation when faced with mortgage fraud and foreclosure issues, the author encourages insurers, as part of their investigations, to check the sales history of the insured premises because several sales within a short period of time could indicate false, inflated values.  Also, it is advisable to conduct a title search, checking with the local tax assessment office or recorder of deeds, to analyze the property’s ownership history and to ensure that the insured owns the property.  Interviewing and completing background checks on the appraisers and real-estate brokers that were involved in a transaction are also advisable.

Finally, review information regarding recent comparable sales in the area, and other documents, such as tax assessments, to verify the property’s value.  Reviewing a title history can help determine if a property has been sold multiple times within a short period, which could indicate that the property has been “flipped” and that the value is falsely inflated.

©2010 Johnson & Bell, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.