Trump Administration Notifies Congress of Intent to Renegotiate NAFTA

The White House formally notified Congress on Thursday of the Trump administration’s intent to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The notification letter from U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer marked the start of a 90-day window to consult with members of Congress on developing negotiation priorities before beginning formal negotiations with Canada and Mexico as early as August 16, 2017.NAFTA, USA, Mexico, Canada

Currently, there is no indication that renegotiations will impact NAFTA-related immigration programs. However, under the Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015, the administration’s negotiation objectives are required to be made public 30 days before formal negotiations begin. While the letter to Congressional leadership did not discuss any specific changes to NAFTA, the administration indicated that it would aim to modernize outdated chapters of the agreement and address challenges faced by U.S. consumers, businesses, and workers.

NAFTA Immigration Programs

Among other economic and trade relationships established under NAFTA, the agreement created the TN nonimmigrant classification, which allows certain citizens of Canada and Mexico to work temporarily in the United States in a professional capacity. The agreement also provides an expanded range of permissible business activities for Canadian and Mexican citizens in B-1 visitor status and permits Canadian citizens to submit L-1 intracompany transferee petitions directly at U.S. ports of entry and pre-flight inspection stations for adjudication by U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

Whether the Trump administration intends to alter existing immigration programs under NAFTA is not yet known.

This post was written by Kara Kelly of Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C.

Canada to Implement Electronic Travel Authorization System

Starting in March 2016, Canada will require individuals who may visit Canada without a visa to first obtain approval from its electronic travel authorization system (eTA). Visitors to the United States will recognize eTA as similar to the ESTA (Electronic System for Travel Authorization), which is used by the United States to pre-screen its visa-exempt visitors. Applicants will be able to use the eTA system starting Aug. 1, 2015.

The eTA will only be required for visa-exempt individuals seeking to travel to Canada by air for a short-term visit. Applicants must pay a CAD $7.00 processing fee and the resulting electronic travel authorization will be valid for five years or until the applicant’s passport expires, the eTA is cancelled, or a new eTA is issued. The eTA will include the applicant’s name, date, place of birth, gender, address, nationality, and passport information.

Notably, U.S. citizens are exempt from the eTA requirement, as are individuals who already have a Canadian visitor visa in their passport.

Authored by Rebecca Schechter of Greenberg Traurig

©2015 Greenberg Traurig, LLP. All rights reserved.

CBP Announces Optimized Processing for First-Time Canadian TN and L Applicants

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U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has announced optimized processing procedures at fourteen ports-of-entry, including four pre-clearance locations, for Canadian citizens seeking TN or L status for the first time. This initiative is designed to increase customer satisfaction, decrease wait times and allow CBP to effectively deal with increased volume of Canadian TN and L applicants. Although first-time Canadian TN and L applicants may go to other ports for processing, CBP is encouraging applicants to go through one of the designated ports below for optimized processing:

Pre-Flight Inspection Locations

  • Pearson International Airport, Toronto, Ontario

  • Trudeau International Airport, Dorval, Quebec

  • Vancouver International Airport, Richmond, British Columbia

  • Calgary International Airport, Calgary, Alberta

Land Port Locations

  • Highgate Springs Port of Entry, Highgate Springs, Vermont

  • Derby Line Port of Entry, Derby Line, Vermont

  • Alexandria Bay Port of Entry, Alexandria, New York

  • Peace Bridge Port of Entry, Buffalo, New York

  • Rainbow Bridge Port of Entry, Niagara Falls, New York

  • Champlain Port of Entry, Champlain, New York

  • Detroit Canada Tunnel Port of Entry, Detroit, Michigan

  • Detroit Ambassador Bridge Port of Entry, Detroit, Michigan

  • Blaine Peace Arch Port of Entry, Blaine, Washington

  • Sweetgrass Port of Entry,  Sweetgrass Montana



The Real Tax Benefits of Inverting to Canada

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On August 26, Burger King announced that it entered into an agreement to acquire Tim Hortons, Inc., the Canadian coffee-and-doughnut chain, in a transaction that will be structured as an “inversion” (i.e., Burger King will become a subsidiary of a Canadian parent corporation).  The deal is expected to close in 2014 or 2015. The agreement values Tim Hortons at approximately $11 billion, which represents a 30 percent premium over Tim Hortons’ August 22 closing stock price.

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Under the terms of the deal, Tim Hortons shareholders will receive a combination of cash and common shares in the new company. Each common share of Burger King will be converted into 0.99 of a share of the new parent company and 0.01 of a unit of a newly formed, Ontario-based limited partnership controlled by the new parent company. Holders of shares of Burger King common stock, however, will be given the right to elect to receive only partnership units in lieu of common shares of the new parent company, subject to a limit on the maximum number of partnership units issued.  Burger King shareholders who make this election will be able to defer paying tax on the built-in gain in their Burger King shares until the partnership units are sold. 3G Capital, Burger King’s principal shareholder, has elected to receive only partnership units. 3G will own approximately 51 percent of the new Burger King-Tim Hortons company, with current public shareholders of Burger King and Tim Hortons receiving 27 percent and 22 percent, respectively.

Inversions have gotten plenty of negative publicity during the past few years.  Most of the reported deals involve U.S. companies that have acquired smaller foreign companies in low tax jurisdictions such as Ireland, Switzerland, and the U.K.  As with any inversion transaction, the U.S. company will continue to be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its worldwide income.  The U.S. company will benefit, however, from the ability to: (i) reorganize its controlled foreign subsidiaries under a new foreign parent corporation (thereby removing those subsidiaries from the U.S. “controlled foreign corporation” regime and also allowing for the future repatriation of non-U.S. source profits to the foreign parent corporation and avoid U.S. corporate income tax); and (ii) “base erode” the U.S. company with intercompany debt and/or license arrangements with the new foreign parent or its non-U.S. subsidiaries.

It has been reported that Burger King’s effective tax rate was 27.5 percent in 2013 and Tim Hortons was 26.8 percent (15 percent federal rate plus 11.8 percent provincial rate), so “base eroding” Burger King with deductible interest and/or royalty payments to Canada will not provide a significant tax benefit to Burger King.  Where the use of a Canadian parent corporation, however, will benefit Burger King (and other U.S. companies that have inverted into Canada) from a tax perspective is the ability to take advantage of Canada’s (i) “exempt surplus” regime, which allows for the repatriation of dividends from foreign subsidiaries into Canada on a tax-free basis; and (ii) income tax treaties that contain tax sparing provisions, granting foreign tax credits at rates higher than the actual foreign taxes paid.  The United States does not provide either of these tax benefits under its corporate income tax system or treaty network. 

Canadian Exempt Surplus Regime

In general, under Canadian law, dividends received by a Canadian corporation out of the “exempt surplus” of a foreign subsidiary are not subject to corporate income tax in Canada.  Exempt surplus includes earnings of a foreign subsidiary that is resident in, and carrying on an active business in, a country with which Canada has concluded an income tax treaty or, more recently, a tax information exchange agreement (TIEA).  A TIEA is an agreement between two jurisdictions pursuant to which the jurisdictions may request and share certain information that is relevant to the determination, assessment and collection of taxes, the recovery and enforcement of tax claims, and the investigation or prosecution of tax matters.  The extension of the exempt surplus regime to jurisdictions that have signed TIEAs (but not income tax treaties) with Canada is significant because Canada has signed such agreements with low-tax jurisdictions, such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and the Bahamas. Historically, the use of a Barbados IBC, which has a maximum corporate income tax rate of 2.5 percent, was the preferred jurisdiction for a Canadian parent company operating in a low-tax jurisdiction because of the long standing Canada-Barbados income tax treaty.

On the other hand, dividends received by a Canadian corporation out of the “taxable surplus” of a foreign subsidiary will be taxable in Canada (subject to a grossed-up deduction for foreign taxes) at regular corporate income tax rates. Taxable surplus includes most types of passive income, such as royalties, interest, etc., and active business income of a foreign subsidiary that is resident in, or carrying on business in, a country with which Canada has neither an income tax treaty nor a TIEA.  Special rules may deem certain passive income (such as interest or royalties) to be included in exempt surplus if received by a foreign subsidiary resident in a tax treaty or TIEA jurisdiction, if those amounts are deductible in computing the exempt earnings of another foreign subsidiary.  For example, interest and royalties paid from an active business of a U.K. subsidiary of a Canadian parent corporation to a Cayman Islands subsidiary of such Canadian parent will be eligible to be repatriated to Canada from the Cayman Islands under the exempt surplus regime on a tax-free basis.

It is interesting to note, however, that Burger King will not be able to repatriate most of its foreign-source income to Canada on a tax-free basis under the exempt surplus rules.  The majority of Burger King’s foreign-source income consists of royalties and franchise fees, which will be considered passive income for Canadian income tax purposes.  (Burger King, which operates in about 14,000 locations in nearly 100 countries, has become a franchiser that collects royalty fees from its franchisees, not an operator of restaurants).

Canada’s Tax Sparing Provisions

Another tax benefit offered by a Canadian parent corporation is the ability to utilize the “tax sparing” provisions contained in many Canadian income tax treaties. Canada currently has income tax treaties that contain tax sparing provisions with more than 30 countries, including Argentina, Brazil, China, Israel, Singapore, and Spain. In general, the purpose of a tax spari
ng provision is to preserve certain tax incentives granted by a developing jurisdiction by requiring the other jurisdiction to give a foreign tax credit for the taxes that would have been paid to the developing country had the tax incentive not been granted.  For example, under Article 22 of the Canada-Brazil income tax treaty, dividends paid by a Brazilian company to a Canadian parent corporation are deemed to have been subject to a 25 percent withholding tax in Brazil and therefore, eligible for a 25 percent foreign tax credit in Canada, even though the treaty limits the withholding tax to 15 percent (and in actuality, Brazil does not even impose withholding taxes on dividends under its local law).  A similar benefit is available for interest and royalties paid from Brazil to Canada (e.g., a deemed withholding tax, and therefore foreign tax credit, of 20 percent, even though the treaty caps the withholding tax at 15 percent).  As noted above, the United States does not currently have any income tax treaties that contain tax sparing provisions.


With Burger King’s effective corporate tax rate of 27.5 percent in the United States in 2013 and Tim Hortons 26.8 percent in Canada, the tax benefits of Burger King inverting to Canada are not readily apparent.  Notwithstanding the lack of a significant disparity in these tax rates, Canada does offer the ability to exclude from its corporate income tax dividends received from the earnings of a foreign subsidiary that is resident in, and carrying on an active business in, a jurisdiction that has concluded an income tax treaty or TIEA with Canada.  This key benefit, along with the Canadian income tax treaties that contain tax sparing provisions, provides one more example of why U.S. multinationals are operating at a competitive disadvantage when compared to other OECD countries around the world. 


U.S. Consular Posts in Canada Temporarily Suspend Nonimmigrant Visa Processing for TCNs (Third Country Nationals)

Morgan Lewis

Third Country Nationals may be unable to schedule nonimmigrant visa appointments at U.S. consulates and embassies throughout Canada this summer.

U.S. consular posts in Canada have temporarily suspended nonimmigrant visa processing for Third Country Nationals (TCNs) during June, July, and August because of staffing issues. In this context, “TCN” refers to any non-Canadian national applying for a U.S. nonimmigrant visa in Canada. The status of TCN visa application processing in Canada is as follows:

  • The only posts with remaining availability during the month of September are Calgary and Vancouver.
  • The Toronto and Ottawa posts are currently scheduling visa appointments in October and do not plan to release any earlier appointments during the summer months.
  • Applicants whose appointments have already been scheduled during the summer months will not be affected.
  • Applicants who reside in Canada with Canadian immigration status will also not be affected.

The Ottawa post may assist in scheduling appointments for applicants who hold senior or executive positions with their U.S. employers.

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The Complicated Landscape of US Estate Tax

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Canadians who own assets in the U.S. may be subject to U.S. estate tax.

This tax is based on the fair market value of all U.S. assets owned at the time of death. It can reach 40%, depending on the value of U.S. assets and the world-wide estate.

But not all Canadians who own U.S. assets will be subject to U.S. estate tax. A close look at the new U.S. estate tax rules will help you determine whether your Canadian clients are exposed to U.S. estate tax.

New U.S. estate tax rules

On January 2, 2013, President Obama signed the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2013 (the Act) into law. The Act resolves many of the issues raised by the fiscal cliff.

Pursuant to the Act, U.S. estate tax liability of non-U.S. residents depends on the answers to the following two questions:

  1. Is the value of the U.S. estate more than $60,000?
  2. Is the value of the worldwide estate greater than $5,250,000?

If the fair market value (FMV) of U.S. assets is less than $60,000 on the date of death, then there is no U.S. estate tax. If the value of U.S. assets on death exceeds $60,000, a Canadian’s estate may still be exempt from U.S. estate tax if the value of his or her worldwide estate upon death is less than what is known as the “exemption.”

Worldwide exemption for 2013 and beyond

The Act provides an exemption from U.S. estate tax if a non-resident dies with a worldwide estate with a FMV of less than $5,250,000. This exemption amount is inflation-adjusted. Everything counts when calculating a Canadian client’s worldwide estate—including RRSPs and life insurance.

Additionally, when advising a married couple about U.S. estate tax exposure, it’s important to calculate the value of both spouses’ estates combined.

Clients often ask whether the U.S. estate tax is on the worldwide estate. The answer is no; the IRS does not tax a Canadian resident (who is not a U.S. citizen) on his or her worldwide estate.

The only assets that are subject to U.S. estate tax for Canadians are U.S. assets.

What are U.S. assets?

Common U.S. assets include real estate in the U.S. and personally held stocks of U.S. corporations, both public and private.

Here’s a complete list of U.S. assets subject to U.S. tax:

  • real estate property located in the U.S;
  • certain tangible personal property located in the U.S., such as furniture, vehicles, boats and airplanes;
  • golf club equity memberships;
  • shares of U.S. corporations, regardless of the location of the share certificates (even inside RRSPs or RRIFs);
  • interests in partnerships owning U.S. real estate or carrying on business in the U.S.;
  • U.S. pension plans and annuity amounts (IRAs and 401K plans);
  • stock options of a U.S. company;
  • U.S. mutual funds;
  • money owed to Canadians by American persons; and
  • money market accounts with U.S. brokerage firms.

The following is a list of U.S. assets not subject to U.S. estate tax:

  • U.S. bank deposits;
  • certain debt obligations, such as U.S. government bonds;
  • American depository receipts;
  • term deposits/guaranteed investment certificates;
  • real estate situated outside the U.S.;
  • Canadian mutual funds denominated in U.S. dollars that invest in U.S. stocks;
  • life insurance proceeds payable on the death of a Canadian citizen and resident who is not an American citizen; and
  • non-U.S. stocks, bonds and mutual funds.

Many Canadians own assets subject to U.S. estate tax with vacation homes and shares of U.S. corporations topping the list. How can you help clients who own these assets?

The following scenario provides some answers.

Strategies for Canadians who own U.S. assets

Richard is a Canadian citizen and resident, single, with a worldwide estate of $10 million. He owns an $800,000 property in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

Richard’s inherited 25% of the shares of four Florida corporations from his deceased father, which he estimates have a value of $200,000. Each corporation owns an apartment building in South Florida.

The chart “Example estimates” (this page) approximates Richard’s 2013 exposure to U.S. estate tax.

Tax planning for U.S. real estate

The goal of any tax-planning for a Canadian owner of U.S. real estate is to ensure the estate of the Canadian decedent is not subject to U.S. estate tax. Consequently, title should not be in his or her name. Alternative ownership structures include:

  • corporation;
  • cross-border trust (irrevocable or revocable); and
  • limited partnership.

These ownership structures avoid probate and guardianship proceedings in the case of incapacity and can defer or avoid U.S. estate tax.

Tax planning for stocks

Although Richard’s shares of U.S. stock are considered U.S. assets, there are tax-planning techniques for avoiding U.S. estate tax.

01 Sell

This may trigger capital gains tax in Canada, though Richard may have some capital losses to apply against it.

02 Create a Canadian holding corporation

Transfer the shares of U.S. stocks on a tax-free basis into a Canadian corporation, of which Richard is the shareholder.

Should Richard pass away with U.S. stock in his Canadian holding company, there will be no U.S. estate tax because Richard no longer owns shares of a U.S. company; he only owns shares of a Canadian holding corporation that owns shares of the Florida companies that Richard’s father passed on to him.

The U.S. Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA) may apply to Richard’s transfer of U.S. stocks into a Canadian company. FIRPTA requires that 10% of the sale price or transfer value of U.S. real estate by a non-resident of the U.S. be withheld and remitted to the IRS. Richard can avoid this with proper structuring and reporting, which we’ll explain next time. No withholding will be required and no disposition will have occurred.

Example estimates of U.S. Estate Tax Payable for 2013

Article by:

David A. Altro


Altro Levy LLP

Digital Currency Identified as an “Emerging Risk” in the Canadian Federal Government’s 2014 Budget

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On February 11, 2014, the Canadian Federal Government released its 2014 Budget. In the 2014 Budget, the Federal Government pledged to introduce legislative amendments to strengthen Canada’s anti-money laundering and terrorist financing regime in the area of virtual (digital) currency.

2013: Year of Bitcoin?

At the beginning of 2013, one bitcoin could be purchased for $12. For a brief period in November 2013, one bitcoin was worth more than one ounce of gold ($1242 to $1240, respectively). Forbes and MarketWatch wrote articles proclaiming 2013 as the year of bitcoin, and “bitcoin” was chosen as the word of the year by the Australian National Dictionary Centre (beating out worthy candidates, including “selfie” and “twerk”).

This increased popularity of digital currency has brought increased scrutiny from regulators and law enforcement. Last year in the United States, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network issued guidance with respect to whether activities by individuals and companies related to virtual currencies are subject to registration, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements, and the FBI arrested the “mastermind” of Silk Road (a marketplace selling illegal items and accepting payment in virtual currency). In early 2014, a prominent member of the bitcoin community was indicted on money laundering charges.

Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) Release Its Position on Bitcoin

Prior to the release of the 2014 Budget, the main Canadian government references to digital currency were from the CRA. The first notable CRA acknowledgment of bitcoin was in April 2013 in the form of a CRA communication to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (“CBC”). The communication stated that transactions involving bitcoin are barter transactions and that gains resulting from bitcoin transactions could be income or capital depending on the specific facts.

On November 5, 2013, the CRA issued its first release on the taxation of digital currency. This release reinforced the CRA’s earlier position on bitcoin that was set out in its April 2013 e-mail to the CBC. On December 23, 2013, in CRA Document No. 2013-0514701|7, subject “Bitcoins,” the CRA further clarified its position with respect to bitcoin “in response to a summary of comments that were provided in response to a recent media enquiry describing the income tax consequences of various transactions involving digital currency.”

Accordingly, the CRA considers bitcoin to be a commodity, not a currency. Therefore, using bitcoins to purchase goods or services is considered a barter transaction. The sale of bitcoins at a profit is treated as either income or capital depending on a particular taxpayer’s circumstances.

Virtual Currency in the 2014 Budget

Virtual currency is identified in the 2014 Budget as an “emerging risk” that threatens Canada’s international leadership in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. Bitcoin is cited in the 2014 Budget as an example of such virtual currency.

In the 2014 Budget, the Federal Government proposed to introduce anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing regulations for virtual currencies, such as bitcoin.

The Federal Government noted in the 2014 Budget that this proposal was based on a report by the Standing Senate Committee on Banking, Trade and Commerce entitled Follow the Money: Is Canada Making Progress in Combatting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing? Not Really (the “Report”). The Report is a five-year review of the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (the “Act”) and was issued in March 2013. However, the only reference in the Report to digital currency is a brief note that the development of electronic methods to launder money must be addressed through timely amendments to the Act and its regulations.

2014: Year of Bitcoin Regulation

The Federal Government has identified digital currency as an “emerging risk” in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. Accordingly, the regulation of digital currency in Canada is imminent, and individuals and businesses dealing in bitcoin will soon be subject to certain registration, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.

Article by:

Dickinson Wright PLLC